Familiarity with the history of building stones : Stone is one of the most basic building materials that humans have used to build tools and shelters and meet their needs. The Paleolithic and Paleolithic periods in history of building stones indicate the periods in which the use of stone took precedence over metal and other materials.
Remains of stone houses in northern Iran date back to 7000 years ago. In stone buildings, carcass stone with gypsum and lime mortars has been used. It should be acknowledged that although stone has partially given way to materials such as brick due to its weight and transportation and extraction problems, it still retains its importance in heavy and rigid structures such as bridges, tunnels, avalanches, retaining walls, slate, chair slats, etc. has done.
General properties and use of stones :
Rocks are generally classified into igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks in terms of their origin. In studying the general properties of rocks, such things as tensile strength, pressure tolerance, permeability, wave propagation, stability and considering the layering layer and weak surfaces in operation are considered.
following the history of building stones, Rocks typically have surfaces where the adhesion and bonding strength of the grains is less or less than other layers, and these can be very important in the study of rocks. In general, building stone should be free of grooves, streaks, cracks, pores, decay and loose layers, and should have a uniform color as much as possible.
In general, natural stone that has sufficient resistance to weather conditions and interesting colors can be used in construction operations and in the form of carcass stone, slate stone, load-bearing stone, plaque stone, cap stone, pillar stone and even as stone utensils and tools. Appeared.
How to prepare stones and its types:
Large pieces of stone obtained from the mine are known as “peak stones”. The peak stone should not be crushed under the cutting blade and should be as large and portable as possible. Peak rock is separated from the mine by blasting, blasting or cutting, and depending on the type of material and its use in the workshop, it is prepared by mechanical operations.
Stones with rough and load-bearing use are prepared with axes and hammers, and decorative stones are first cut and washed during cutting to wash the stone and remove its dirt, then depending on the importance and quality, it is sanded and polished.
The stones used in the building are commonly known as carcass stone, slate stone, windstone and plaque stone.
Types of Iranian building stones:
The main stones used in construction operations in Iran are granite, quartzite , travertine limestone, onyx marble, , and sandstone .
Granite: It is a type of igneous rock and is very hard and durable, durable, rough and very polished. Sanding and polishing is possible from ordinary saw and stone facade to the stage of mirrors.
Crushed granite is used to make concrete for roads, railways, and building stone. It is used for monuments, infrastructure, interior and exterior decoration, and flooring.
Among the types of building granites are gabbro and diabase, which are also called black granite.
crystal: This type of rock, which is often confused with granite, has different properties and is harder than granite. This stone is recognizable by its rough and crystalline appearance.
Quartzite is mostly used in cheap and rural buildings due to its rough appearance. Its color is mostly burnt brown, red, gray and brown.
Sandstone: These are sedimentary rocks that are formed by the adhesion of silica grains to each other. The material of this stone may be silica, iron oxide or clay. The hardness and durability of the parts of this stone depends on the type of adhesive. The color of these stones is usually gray, brown, red and purple.
Fully cemented sandstone may be completely crushed and used in the construction of railways and roads. Quartz sandstone is also used as a casting sand and as a raw material for glass.
Limestone: It is a type of sedimentary rock and exists in a wide range in terms of size, slate, shape and color. Limestone is used for interior and exterior decoration of walls, walls, floor decorations, facades, sculptures and columns.
Travertine: This rock is the result of sediments of underground hot water streams. Travertine is available in white, cream and gray. This stone is used to decorate the inside and outside of the building.
Marble: It is a type of metamorphic stone that is available in white, gray, black, green, red, yellow and purple colors. Marble is used to decorate and decorate the interior of the building, including floors, walls and works of art.
onyx: It is a type of luxury stone that is available in many different colores like marble including :white, gray, black, green, red, yellow and purple colors and etc. onyx mostly used in interior decorate of the building, including floors, walls and works of art and event the kitchens
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